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Data Structures


Priority queues

local heap = require'heap'

Priority queues implemented as binary heaps. A binary heap is a binary tree that maintains the lowest (or highest) value at the root. The tree is laid as an implicit data structure over an array. Pushing and popping values from the heap is O(log(n)) and doesn’t use additional memory.


heap.heap(...) -> push, pop create a heap API from a stack API
heap.cdataheap(h) -> h create a fixed-capacity cdata-based heap
heap.valueheap([h]) -> h create a heap for Lua values
h:push(val) -> index push a value
h:pop([index][, dst]) -> val pop value (root value at default index 1)
h:replace(index, val) replace value at index
h:peek([index][, dst]) -> val get value without popping it
h:length() -> n number of elements in heap

API Notes:

  • a cdata heap can hold size-1 elements (element 0 is used for swapping).
  • trying to push nil into a value heap raises an error.
  • values that compare equally are popped in random order.

heap.heap(push, pop, swap, len, cmp) -> push, pop, rebalance

Create a heap API:

push(...) -> i       drop a value into the heap and return its index
pop(i)               remove the value at index i (root is at index 1)
rebalance(i)         rebalance the heap after the value at i has been changed

from a stack API:

push(...)            add a value to the top of the stack
pop()                remove the value at the top of the stack
swap(i, j)           swap two values (indices start at 1)
len() -> n           number of elements in stack
cmp(i, j) -> bool    compare elements

The heap can be a min-heap or max-heap depending on the comparison function. If cmp(i, j) returns a[i] < a[j] then it’s a min-heap. Stack indices are assumed to be consecutive.

heap.cdataheap(h) -> h

Create a cdata heap over table h which must contain:

  • size: heap capacity (required).
  • ctype: element type (required).
  • data, length: a pre-allocated heap (optional).
  • cmp: a comparison function (optional).


local h = heap.cdataheap{
   size = 100,
   ctype = [[
      struct {
         int priority;
         int order;
   cmp = function(a, b)
      if a.priority == b.priority then
         return a.order > b.order
      return a.priority < b.priority
h:push{priority = 20, order = 1}
h:push{priority = 10, order = 2}
h:push{priority = 10, order = 3}
h:push{priority = 20, order = 4}
assert(h:pop().order == 3)
assert(h:pop().order == 2)
assert(h:pop().order == 4)
assert(h:pop().order == 1)

Note: the order field in this example is used to stabilize the order in which elements with the same priority are popped.

heap.valueheap([h]) -> h

Create a value heap from table h, which can contain:

  • cmp: a comparison function (optional).
  • a pre-allocated heap in the array part of the table (optional).


local h = heap.valueheap{cmp = function(a, b)
      return a.priority < b.priority
h:push{priority = 20, etc = 'bar'}
h:push{priority = 10, etc = 'foo'}
assert(h:pop().priority == 10)
assert(h:pop().priority == 20)


  • heapifying the initial array
  • merge(h), meld(h)

Last updated: 2 years ago | Edit on GitHub

Pkg type:Lua
Version: 12c41d4
Last commit:
Author: Cosmin Apreutesei
License: Public Domain

Requires: none

Required by: nw  testui  ui