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format

Format - A class for writing the Excel XLSX Format file


The Format Class

This section describes the methods and properties that are available for formatting cells in Excel.

The properties of a cell that can be formatted include: fonts, colours, patterns, borders, alignment and number formatting.

Format objects are created by calling the workbook add_format() method as follows:

 format = workbook:add_format()

Format properties can be set by calling any of the methods shown in this section:

 format = workbook:add_format()
 format:set_bold()
 format:set_font_color("red")

Alternatively the properties can be set by passing a table of properties to the add_format() constructor:

 format = workbook:add_format({bold = true, font_color = "red"})

The documentation below shows the property methods but the information is equally applicable when using them in the add_format() constructor.

format:set_font_name()

set_font_name(fontname)

Set the font used in the cell.

param fontname

Cell font.

Specify the font used used in the cell format:

 cell_format:set_font_name("Times New Roman")

Excel can only display fonts that are installed on the system that it is running on. Therefore it is best to use the fonts that come as standard such as "Calibri", "Times New Roman" and "Courier New".

The default font for an unformatted cell in Excel 2007+ is "Calibri".

format:set_font_size()

set_font_size(size)

Set the size of the font used in the cell.

param size

The cell font size.

Set the font size of the cell format:

 format = workbook:add_format()
 format:set_font_size(30)

Excel adjusts the height of a row to accommodate the largest font size in the row. You can also explicitly specify the height of a row using the set_row() worksheet method.

format:set_font_color()

set_font_color(color)

Set the color of the font used in the cell.

param color

The cell font color.

Set the font colour:

 format = workbook:add_format()

 format:set_font_color("red")

 worksheet:write(0, 0, "wheelbarrow", format)

The color can be a Html style #RRGGBB string or a limited number of named colors, see colors.

Note: The set_font_color() method is used to set the colour of the font in a cell. To set the colour of a cell use the set_bg_color() and set_pattern() methods.

format:set_bold()

set_bold()

Turn on bold for the format font.

Set the bold property of the font:

 format:set_bold()

format:set_italic()

set_italic()

Turn on italic for the format font.

Set the italic property of the font:

 format:set_italic()

format:set_underline()

set_underline()

Turn on underline for the format:

param style

Underline style.

Set the underline property of the format:

 format:set_underline()

The available underline styles are:

  • 1 = Single underline (the default)
  • 2 = Double underline
  • 33 = Single accounting underline
  • 34 = Double accounting underline

format:set_font_strikeout()

set_font_strikeout()

Set the strikeout property of the font.

format:set_font_script()

set_font_script()

Set the superscript/subscript property of the font.

The available options are:

  • 1 = Superscript
  • 2 = Subscript

format:set_num_format()

set_num_format(format_string)

Set the number format for a cell.

param format_string

The cell number format:

This method is used to define the numerical format of a number in Excel. It controls whether a number is displayed as an integer, a floating point number, a date, a currency value or some other user defined format:

The numerical format of a cell can be specified by using a format string or an index to one of Excel's built-in formats:

 format1 = workbook:add_format()
 format2 = workbook:add_format()

 format1:set_num_format("d mmm yyyy")  -- Format string.
 format2:set_num_format(0x0F)          -- Format index.

Format strings can control any aspect of number formatting allowed by Excel:

 format01:set_num_format("0.000")
 worksheet:write(1, 0, 3.1415926, format01)       --> 3.142

 format02:set_num_format("#,##0")
 worksheet:write(2, 0, 1234.56, format02)         --> 1,235

 format03:set_num_format("#,##0.00")
 worksheet:write(3, 0, 1234.56, format03)         --> 1,234.56

 format04:set_num_format("0.00")
 worksheet:write(4, 0, 49.99, format04)           --> 49.99

 format05:set_num_format("mm/dd/yy")
 worksheet:write(5, 0, 36892.521, format05)       --> 01/01/01

 format06:set_num_format("mmm d yyyy")
 worksheet:write(6, 0, 36892.521, format06)       --> Jan 1 2001

 format07:set_num_format("d mmmm yyyy")
 worksheet:write(7, 0, 36892.521, format07)       --> 1 January 2001

 format08:set_num_format("dd/mm/yyyy hh:mm AM/PM")
 worksheet:write(8, 0, 36892.521, format08)       --> 01/01/2001 12:30 AM

 format09:set_num_format('0 "dollar and" .00 "cents"')
 worksheet:write(9, 0, 1.87, format09)            --> 1 dollar and .87 cents

 -- Conditional numerical formatting.
 format10:set_num_format("[Green]General;[Red]-General;General")
 worksheet:write(10, 0, 123, format10)  -- > 0 Green
 worksheet:write(11, 0, -45, format10)  -- < 0 Red
 worksheet:write(12, 0,   0, format10)  -- = 0 Default colour

 -- Zip code.
 format11:set_num_format("00000")
 worksheet:write(13, 0, 1209, format11)

The number system used for dates is described in working_with_dates_and_time.

The colour format should have one of the following values:

 [Black] [Blue] [Cyan] [Green] [Magenta] [Red] [White] [Yellow]

For more information refer to the Microsoft documentation on cell formats.

Excel's built-in formats are shown in the following table:

Index Index Format String
0 0x00 General
1 0x01 0
2 0x02 0.00
3 0x03 #,##0
4 0x04 #,##0.00
5 0x05 ($#,##0_);($#,##0)
6 0x06 ($#,##0_);[Red]($#,##0)
7 0x07 ($#,##0.00_);($#,##0.00)
8 0x08 ($#,##0.00_);[Red]($#,##0.00)
9 0x09 0%
10 0x0a 0.00%
11 0x0b 0.00E+00
12 0x0c # ?/?
13 0x0d # ??/??
14 0x0e m/d/yy
15 0x0f d-mmm-yy
16 0x10 d-mmm
17 0x11 mmm-yy
18 0x12 h:mm AM/PM
19 0x13 h:mm:ss AM/PM
20 0x14 h:mm
21 0x15 h:mm:ss
22 0x16 m/d/yy h:mm
... ... ...
37 0x25 (#,##0_);(#,##0)
38 0x26 (#,##0_);[Red](#,##0)
39 0x27 (#,##0.00_);(#,##0.00)
40 0x28 (#,##0.00_);[Red](#,##0.00)
41 0x29 _(* #,##0_);_(* (#,##0);_(* "-"_);_(@_)
42 0x2a _($* #,##0_);_($* (#,##0);_($* "-"_);_(@_)
43 0x2b _(* #,##0.00_);_(* (#,##0.00);_(* "-"??_);_(@_)
44 0x2c _($* #,##0.00_);_($* (#,##0.00);_($* "-"??_);_(@_)
45 0x2d mm:ss
46 0x2e [h]:mm:ss
47 0x2f mm:ss.0
48 0x30 ##0.0E+0
49 0x31 @

Note

Numeric formats 23 to 36 are not documented by Microsoft and may differ in international versions. The listed date and currency formats may also vary depending on system settings.

Note

The dollar sign in the above formats appear as the defined local currency symbol.

format:set_locked()

set_locked(state)

Set the cell locked state.

param bool state

Turn cell locking on or off. Defaults to true.

This property can be used to prevent modification of a cells contents. Following Excel's convention, cell locking is turned on by default. However, it only has an effect if the worksheet has been protected using the worksheet protect() method:

 locked = workbook:add_format()
 locked:set_locked(true)

 unlocked = workbook:add_format()
 locked:set_locked(false)

 -- Enable worksheet protection
 worksheet:protect()

 -- This cell cannot be edited.
 worksheet:write("A1", "=1+2", locked)

 -- This cell can be edited.
 worksheet:write("A2", "=1+2", unlocked)

format:set_hidden()

set_hidden()

Hide formulas in a cell.

This property is used to hide a formula while still displaying its result. This is generally used to hide complex calculations from end users who are only interested in the result. It only has an effect if the worksheet has been protected using the worksheet protect() method:

 hidden = workbook:add_format()
 hidden:set_hidden()

 -- Enable worksheet protection
 worksheet:protect()

 -- The formula in this cell isn't visible
 worksheet:write("A1", "=1+2", hidden)

format:set_align()

set_align(alignment)

Set the alignment for data in the cell.

param alignment

The vertical and or horizontal alignment direction.

This method is used to set the horizontal and vertical text alignment within a cell. The following are the available horizontal alignments:

Horizontal alignment
center
right
fill
justify
center_across

The following are the available vertical alignments:

Vertical alignment
top
vcenter
bottom
vjustify

As in Excel, vertical and horizontal alignments can be combined:

 format = workbook:add_format()

 format:set_align("center")
 format:set_align("vcenter")

 worksheet:set_row(0, 30)
 worksheet:write(0, 0, "Some Text", format)

Text can be aligned across two or more adjacent cells using the "center_across" property. However, for genuine merged cells it is better to use the merge_range() worksheet method.

The "vjustify" (vertical justify) option can be used to provide automatic text wrapping in a cell. The height of the cell will be adjusted to accommodate the wrapped text. To specify where the text wraps use the set_text_wrap() method.

format:set_center_across()

set_center_across()

Centre text across adjacent cells.

Text can be aligned across two or more adjacent cells using the set_center_across() method. This is an alias for the set_align("center_across") method call.

Only one cell should contain the text, the other cells should be blank:

 format = workbook:add_format()
 format:set_center_across()

 worksheet:write(1, 1, "Center across selection", format)
 worksheet:write_blank(1, 2, format)

For actual merged cells it is better to use the merge_range() worksheet method.

format:set_text_wrap()

set_text_wrap()

Wrap text in a cell.

Turn text wrapping on for text in a cell:

 format = workbook:add_format()
 format:set_text_wrap()

 worksheet:write(0, 0, "Some long text to wrap in a cell", format)

If you wish to control where the text is wrapped you can add newline characters to the string:

 format = workbook:add_format()
 format:set_text_wrap()

 worksheet:write(0, 0, "It's\na bum\nwrap", format)

Excel will adjust the height of the row to accommodate the wrapped text. A similar effect can be obtained without newlines using the set_align("vjustify") method.

format:set_rotation()

set_rotation(angle)

Set the rotation of the text in a cell.

param angle

Rotation angle in the range -90 to 90 and 270.

Set the rotation of the text in a cell. The rotation can be any angle in the range -90 to 90 degrees:

 format = workbook:add_format()
 format:set_rotation(30)

 worksheet:write(0, 0, "This text is rotated", format)

The angle 270 is also supported. This indicates text where the letters run from top to bottom.

format:set_indent()

set_indent(level)

Set the cell text indentation level.

param level

Indentation level.

This method can be used to indent text in a cell. The argument, which should be an integer, is taken as the level of indentation:

 format1 = workbook:add_format()
 format2 = workbook:add_format()

 format1:set_indent(1)
 format2:set_indent(2)

 worksheet:write("A1", "This text is indented 1 level",  format1)
 worksheet:write("A2", "This text is indented 2 levels", format2)

Indentation is a horizontal alignment property. It will override any other horizontal properties but it can be used in conjunction with vertical properties.

format:set_shrink()

set_shrink()

Turn on the text "shrink to fit" for a cell.

This method can be used to shrink text so that it fits in a cell:

 format = workbook:add_format()
 format:set_shrink()

 worksheet:write(0, 0, "Honey, I shrunk the text!", format)

format:set_text_justlast()

set_text_justlast()

Turn on the "justify last" text property.

Only applies to Far Eastern versions of Excel.

format:set_pattern()

set_pattern(index)

param index

Pattern index. 0 - 18.

Set the background pattern of a cell.

The most common pattern is 1 which is a solid fill of the background color.

format:set_bg_color()

set_bg_color(color)

Set the color of the background pattern in a cell.

param color

The cell font color.

The set_bg_color() method can be used to set the background colour of a pattern. Patterns are defined via the set_pattern() method. If a pattern hasn't been defined then a solid fill pattern is used as the default.

Here is an example of how to set up a solid fill in a cell:

 format = workbook:add_format()

 format:set_pattern(1)  -- This is optional when using a solid fill.
 format:set_bg_color("green")

 worksheet:write("A1", "Ray", format)

The color can be a Html style #RRGGBB string or a limited number of named colors, see colors.

format:set_fg_color()

set_fg_color(color)

Set the color of the foreground pattern in a cell.

param color

The cell font color.

The set_fg_color() method can be used to set the foreground colour of a pattern.

The color can be a Html style #RRGGBB string or a limited number of named colors, see colors.

format:set_border()

set_border(style)

Set the cell border style.

param style

Border style index. Default is 1.

Individual border elements can be configured using the following methods with the same parameters:

  • set_bottom()
  • set_top()
  • set_left()
  • set_right()

A cell border is comprised of a border on the bottom, top, left and right. These can be set to the same value using set_border() or individually using the relevant method calls shown above.

The following shows the border styles sorted by Excel index number:

Index Name Weight Style
0 None 0
1 Continuous 1 -----------
2 Continuous 2 -----------
3 Dash 1 - - - - - -
4 Dot 1 . . . . . .
5 Continuous 3 -----------
6 Double 3 ===========
7 Continuous 0 -----------
8 Dash 2 - - - - - -
9 Dash Dot 1 - . - . - .
10 Dash Dot 2 - . - . - .
11 Dash Dot Dot 1 - . . - . .
12 Dash Dot Dot 2 - . . - . .
13 SlantDash Dot 2 / - . / - .

The following shows the borders in the order shown in the Excel Dialog:

Index Style Index Style
0 None 12 - . . - . .
7 ----------- 13 / - . / - .
4 . . . . . . 10 - . - . - .
11 - . . - . . 8 - - - - - -
9 - . - . - . 2 -----------
3 - - - - - - 5 -----------
1 ----------- 6 ===========

format:set_bottom()

set_bottom(style)

Set the cell bottom border style.

param style

Border style index. Default is 1.

Set the cell bottom border style. See set_border for details on the border styles.

format:set_top()

set_top(style)

Set the cell top border style.

param style

Border style index. Default is 1.

Set the cell top border style. See set_border for details on the border styles.

format:set_left()

set_left(style)

Set the cell left border style.

param style

Border style index. Default is 1.

Set the cell left border style. See set_border for details on the border styles.

format:set_right()

set_right(style)

Set the cell right border style.

param style

Border style index. Default is 1.

Set the cell right border style. See set_border for details on the border styles.

format:set_border_color()

set_border_color(color)

Set the color of the cell border.

param color

The cell border color.

Individual border elements can be configured using the following methods with the same parameters:

  • set_bottom_color()
  • set_top_color()
  • set_left_color()
  • set_right_color()

Set the colour of the cell borders. A cell border is comprised of a border on the bottom, top, left and right. These can be set to the same colour using set_border_color() or individually using the relevant method calls shown above.

The color can be a Html style #RRGGBB string or a limited number of named colors, see colors.

format:set_bottom_color()

set_bottom_color(color)

Set the color of the bottom cell border.

param color

The cell border color.

See set_border_color for details on the border colors.

format:set_top_color()

set_top_color(color)

Set the color of the top cell border.

param color

The cell border color.

See set_border_color for details on the border colors.

format:set_left_color()

set_left_color(color)

Set the color of the left cell border.

param color

The cell border color.

See set_border_color for details on the border colors.

format:set_right_color()

set_right_color(color)

Set the color of the right cell border.

param color

The cell border color.

See set_border_color for details on the border colors.


Last updated: 12 months ago | Edit on GitHub

Package:xlsxwriter
Pkg type:Lua
Version: v0.0.6-28-g34a34b8
Last commit:
Author: John McNamara
License: MIT

Requires: none

Required by: none


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